20 ways to keep your internet identity safe from hackers:
The Dos and Don'ts of Online Safety
1. Never click on a link you did not expect
The golden rule. The main way criminals infect PCs with malware is by luring
users to click on a link or open an attachment. "Sometimes phishing emails
contain obvious spelling mistakes and poor grammar and are easy to spot," says
Sidaway of Integralis. "However, targeted attacks and well-executed mass
mailings can be almost indistinguishable [from genuine emails]." Social media
has helped criminals profile individuals, allowing them to be much more easily
targeted, he adds. "They can see what you're interested in or what you [post]
about and send you crafted messages, inviting you to click on something. Don't."
2. Use different passwords on different sites
With individuals typically having anything up to 100 online accounts, the
tendency has become to share one or two passwords across accounts or use very
simple ones, such as loved ones' names, first pets or favourite sports teams.
Indeed, research by Ofcom last
month revealed that over half of UK adults (55%) use the same passwords for
most, if not all, websites they visit, while one in four (26%) use birthdays or
names as passwords. Any word found in the dictionary is easily crackable.
Instead, says Sian John, online security consultant at Symantec, have one
memorable phrase or a line from a favourite song or poem. For example: "The Observer is a Sunday newspaper" becomes
"toiasn". Add numerals and a special character thus: "T0!asn". Now for every
site you log on to, add the first and last letter of that site to the start and
end of the phrase, so the password for Amazon would be "AT0!asnn". At first
glance, unguessable. But for you, still memorable."
3. Never reuse your main email password
A hacker who has cracked your main email password has the keys to your [virtual]
kingdom. Passwords from the other sites you visit can be reset via your main
email account. A criminal can trawl through your emails and find a treasure
trove of personal data: from banking to passport details, including your date of
birth, all of which enables ID fraud. Identity theft is estimated to cost the UK
almost £2bn a year.
4. Use anti-virus software
German security institute AV-Test found that in 2010 there were 49m new strains
of malware, meaning that anti-virus software manufacturers are engaged in
constant game of "whack-a-mole". Sometimes their reaction times are slow – US
security firm Imperva tested 40 anti-virus packages and found that the initial
detection rate of a new virus was only 5%. Much like flu viruses and vaccine
design, it takes the software designers a while to catch up with the hackers.
5. If in doubt, block
Just say no to social media invitations (such as Facebook-friend or LinkedIn
connection requests) from people you don't know. It's the cyber equivalent of
inviting the twitchy guy who looks at you at the bus stop into your home.
6. Think before you tweet and how you share
Again, the principal risk is ID fraud. Trawling for personal details is the
modern day equivalent of "dumpster-diving", in which strong-stomached thieves
would trawl through bins searching for personal documents, says Symantec's John.
"Many of the same people who have learned to shred documents like bank
statements will happily post the same information on social media. Once that
information is out there, you don't necessarily have control of how other people
use it." She suggests a basic rule: "If you aren't willing to stand at Hyde Park
Corner and say it, don't put it on social media."
7. If you have a "wipe your phone" feature,
you should set it up
Features such as Find My iPhone, Android Lost or BlackBerry Protect allow you to
remotely to erase all your personal data, should your device be lost or stolen.
"Absolutely, set it up," advises Derek Halliday of mobile security specialist
Lookout. "In the case where your phone is gone for good, having a wipe feature
can protect your information from falling into the wrong hands. Even if you
didn't have the foresight to sign up, many wipe your phone features can be
implemented after the fact."
8. Only shop online on secure sites
Before entering your card details, always ensure that the locked padlock or
unbroken key symbol is showing in your browser, cautions industry advisory body
Financial Fraud Action UK. Additionally the beginning of the online retailer's
internet address will change from "http" to "https" to indicate a connection is
secure. Be wary of sites that change back to http once you've logged on.
9. Don't assume banks will pay you back
Banks must refund a customer if he or she has been the victim of fraud, unless
they can prove that the customer has acted "fraudulently" or been "grossly
negligent". Yet as with any case of fraud, the matter is always determined on an
individual basis. "Anecdotally, a customer who has been a victim of a phishing
scam by unwittingly providing a fraudster with their account details and
passwords only to be later defrauded could be refunded," explains Michelle
Whiteman, spokesperson for the Payments Council, an industry body. "However,
were they to fall victim to the same fraud in the future, after their bank had
educated them about how to stay safe, it is possible a subsequent refund won't
be so straightforward. Under payment services regulations, the onus is on the
payment-service provider to prove that the customer was negligent, not vice
versa. Credit card protection is provided under the Consumer Credit Act and
offers similar protection."
10. Ignore pop-ups
Pop-ups can contain malicious software which can trick a user into verifying
something. "[But if and when you do], a download will be performed in the
background, which will install malware," says Sidaway. "This is known as a
drive-by download. Always ignore pop-ups offering things like site surveys on
e-commerce sites, as they are sometimes where the malcode is."
11. Be wary of public Wi-Fi
Most Wi-Fi hotspots do not encrypt information and once a piece of data leaves
your device headed for a web destination, it is "in the clear" as it transfers
through the air on the wireless network, says Symantec's Sian John. "That means
any 'packet sniffer' [a program which can intercept data] or malicious
individual who is sitting in a public destination with a piece of software that
searches for data being transferred on a Wi-Fi network can intercept your
unencrypted data. If you choose to bank online on public Wi-Fi, that's very
sensitive data you are transferring. We advise either using encryption
[software], or only using public Wi-Fi for data which you're happy to be public
– and that shouldn't include social network passwords."
12. Run more than one email account
Thinking about having one for your bank and other financial accounts, another
for shopping and one for social networks. If one account is hacked, you won't
find everything compromised. And it helps you spot phishing emails, because if
an email appears in your shopping account purporting to come from your bank, for
example, you'll immediately know it's a fake.
13. Macs are as vulnerable as PCs
Make no mistake, your shiny new MacBook Air can be attacked too. It's true that
Macs used to be less of a target, simply because criminals used to go after the
largest number of users – ie Windows – but this is changing. "Apple and
Microsoft have both added a number of security features which have significantly
increased the effectiveness of security on their software," says Sidaway, "but
determined attackers are still able to find new ways to exploit users on almost
14. Don't store your card details on websites
Err on the side of caution when asked if you want to store your credit card
details for future use. Mass data security breaches (where credit card details
are stolen en masse) aren't common, but why take the risk? The extra 90 seconds
it takes to key in your details each time is a small price to pay.
15. Add a DNS service to protect other
A DNS or domain name system service converts a web address (a series of letters)
into a machine-readable IP address (a series of numbers). You're probably using
your ISP's DNS service by default, but you can opt to subscribe to a service
such as OpenDNS or Norton ConnectSafe, which redirect you if you attempt to
access a malicious site, says Sian John. "This is helpful for providing some
security (and parental control) across all the devices in your home including
tablets, TVs and games consoles that do not support security software. But they
shouldn't be relied upon as the only line of defence, as they can easily be
16. Enable two-step verification
If your email or cloud service offers it – Gmail, Dropbox, Apple and Facebook do
– take the trouble to set this up. In addition to entering your password, you
are also asked to enter a verification code sent via SMS to your phone. In the
case of Gmail you only have to enter a fresh code every 30 days or when you log
on from a different computer or device. So a hacker might crack your password,
but without the unique and temporary verification code should not be able to
access your account.
17. Lock your phone and tablet devices
Keep it locked, just as you would your front door. Keying in a password or code
40-plus times a day might seem like a hassle but, says Lookout's Derek Halliday,
"It's your first line of defence." Next-generation devices, however, are set to
employ fingerprint scanning technology as additional security.
18. Be careful on auction sites
On these sites in particular, says Symantec's Sian John, exercise vigilance.
"Check the seller feedback and if a deal looks too good then it may well be,"
she says. "Keep your online payment accounts secure by regularly changing your
passwords, checking the bank account to which it is linked and consider having a
separate bank account or credit card for use on them, to limit any potential
fraud still further."
19. Lock down your Facebook account
Facebook regularly updates its timeline and privacy settings, so it is wise to
monitor your profile, particularly if the design of Facebook has changed.
Firstly, in the privacy settings menu, under "who can see my stuff?" change this
to "friends" (be warned: setting this to "friends of friends" means that, according to one Pew study, on average you are sharing
information with 156,569 people). Also in privacy, setting "limit old posts"
applies friends-only sharing to past as well as future posts. Thirdly, disable
the ability of other search engines to link to your timeline.
You should also review the activity log, which shows your entire history of
posts and allows you to check who can see them. Similarly, you should look at
your photo albums and check you're happy with the sharing settings for each
album. In the future you may want to consider building "lists" – subsets of
friends, such as close friends and family, who you might want to share toddler
photographs with, rather than every Tom, Dick and Harriet.
Also, remove your home address, phone number, date of birth and any other
information that could used to fake your identity. Similarly you might want to
delete or edit your "likes" and "groups" – the more hackers know about you, the
more convincing a phishing email they can spam you with. Facebook apps often
share your data, so delete any you don't use or don't remember installing.
Finally, use the "view as" tool to check what the public or even a particular
individual can see on your profile, continue to "edit" and adjust to taste. If
this all sounds rather tedious, you just might prefer to permanently delete your
20. Remember you're human after all
While much of the above are technical solutions to prevent you being hacked and
scammed, hacking done well is
really the skill of tricking human beings, not computers, by preying on their gullibility,
taking advantage of our trust, greed or altruistic impulses. Human error is
still the most likely reason why you'll get hacked.
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